Blog de Sébastien Houël

24 avril 2012

1ère version

NORTHERN IRISH TROUBLES
AND
MURAL ART
 IN DERRY AND BELFAST


CONTENTS
Introduction

I) The first murals
1) When and where did they appear?
2) How did people react to them?

II) The influence of political events on mural art
1)Why mural art?
2) How did the Troubles influence mural art?

III) The main murals
1) Republican murals
2) Loyalist murals

IV) Symbols and slogans
V) How an artistic medium became a touristic asset
« Bogside artists », « People’s Gallery » in Derry

________________________________________________________________________________________________

Résumé consignes

 

NORTHERN IRISH TROUBLES AND MURAL ART IN DERRY AND BELFAST

 

 

 

L'intro doit:

 

  • Contextualiser le sujet et definir les termes clefs de votre travail : Troubles / murals / public art  etc (ce ne sont que des suggestions)? dans une perspective a la fois historique et theorique.
    - Presenter / justifier la periode consideree (vous devez la preciser dans votre titre) ainsi que, dans votre cas, les lieux choisis.
    -Presenter les sources consultees et votre methodologie
    -Etablir votre problematique / hypothese.
    -Presenter votre argumentaire (le plan suivi) et le justifier.

 

 

 

Mémoire de recherche:

-établir un corpus

-problématiser le travail

 

 

-LISTE DE QUESTIONS POUR dégager une pbtique

 

 

 

 

-rendre une bibliographie exhaustive d'ouvrages : a) historiques sur la periode des Troubles et plus largement sur l'histoire de l'Irlande du Nord depuis le début du 20eme ; b) historiques sur les « murals » c) theoriques sur les notions de « political / propaganda / public art » ; d) theoriques sur les notions de patrimonialisation / utilisation du patrimoine i.e.  « uses and abuses of heritage »

 

 

 

 

 

Brouillon divers

 

 

Definition of « street art » Beatriz Scaglia (editor)

 

Street art is any art developed in public spaces -that is, « in the streets »- though the term usually refers to unsanctioned art.

 

John Fekner: street art= « all art on the street that's not graffiti »

 

« Artists have challenged art by situating it in non-art contexts. »

 

Idées: aspects subversifs du Street Art

 

NOTION of Property (streets, city, country...)
























Introduction

Ireland has always been a land of conflicts. Throughout the 20th Century, Northern Ireland has been  devastated by internal conflicts  called « The Troubles ».  

The « troubles » started at the beginning of the 20th Century, when the Irish, who had been dominated by the British for centuries, started to rebel. The Irish rebels thought it was time to put an end to the British Rule, they wanted to free Ireland, and to throw off the British yoke.  

The starting point of the Irish rebellion was an event known as the Easter Rising#, that took place on Easter Day, 1916. The Independence War, that opposed the Irish rebels (who were in favour of a free Irish (Catholic) republic) and the British Army.
The War ends in 1921. Ireland is divided into two parts: the six North-Eastern counties (Co Derry, Co Tyrone, Co Fermanagh, Co Antrim, Co Armagh and Co Down), now called « Northern Ireland », remain part of the United Kingdom. The south becomes independent, and is now known as « Irish Free State ». It will become in 1949 the « Republic of Ireland ».
After a period of relative peace, the troubles are back in the early 1970s, after the sadly famous events that took place on January 30th , 1972 . In the Bogside district , in Derry, the British Army shot twenty six civilians during a demonstration. A long period of violence ensued. Internments, hunger strikes, and many bomb attacks took place until the late 1990s.
In 1998, a peace agreement, called « The Good Friday Agreement #», was signed. It put an end to almost one century of internal violence.
If the troubles are now part of the past, the marks it left on the population are still visible. The Troubles still have an impact on today’s British political life. David Cameron# recently declared:
Tony Blair, Gordon Brown - and John Major before them - worked hard to bring lasting peace to Northern Ireland and I will continue their work.

The troubles inspired a lot of artists and « street artists » who expressed their visions of the conflicts on the walls. The murals of Derry and Belfast are a vivid reminder of Northern Ireland’s troubled past. Fourteen years after the peace agreement, the walls are still full of  violence and sadness.



































BIBLIOGRAPHY


Books

ROLSTON, Bill, Drawing Support: Murals in the North of Ireland, Beyond the Pale Publications, 1992 (first edition)

ROLSTON, Bill, Drawing Support 3: Murals and transitions in the North of Ireland, Beyond the Pale Publications, 2003

ROLSTON, Bill, Politics and Painting: Murals and Conflict in Northern Ireland, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press,1991


SCAGLIA Beatriz, The Aesthetic Variable: Defining Street Art (Graffiti, Flash Mobs, Yarn Bombing, Street Installations, and More), Webster’s Digital Services, 2011



Websites:

Website about « The People’s Gallery » , available here:
http://www.bogsideartists.com/ [viewed  12/22/2011]


A website about murals, available here:
http://www.peacelinetours.co.uk/murals.html [viewed February 2012]

An article on Derry murals , available here: http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article/2282/murals-of-derry [viewed 01/03/2012]

An article on the political aspect of Northern Irish political murals, available here: http://www.stockphotography.co.uk/UK/Northern-Ireland/Irish-Political-Murals.aspx [viewed 01/03/2012]



Articles from BBC News’ official website, available here:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4562793.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/6231216.stm [viewed 01/03/2012]

Various articles from Jean-Baptiste Allemand’s blog « Fast Belfast » : http://blogs.rue89.com/blog-belfast/2010/06/30/des-peintres-ex-ennemis-contre-belfast-et-ses-fresques-naives-156791
http://blogs.rue89.com/blog-belfast/2010/02/09/le-quartier-du-bloody-sunday-sauve-par-trois-peintres-au-chomage

 [viewed January 2012]

A website about murals, available here:
http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/bibdbs/murals/rolston1.htm [viewed February 2012]

A website about Belfast murals, available here:
http://www.belfast-murals.co.uk/  [viewed February 2012]



 

Liste de questions pouvant mener à une problématique:

 

Quel était le but des peintures murales à l'origine et que représentent-elles aujourd'hui? Ont-elles encore une utilité?

 

Aspect subversif de la notion de « street art »?

 

Notion de «réappropriation » du territoire?

 

Affirmation d'une identité?

 

 

(évolution des thèmes de ces peintures en fonction des évènements politiques, une « catégorisation » des murals (loyalist murals/republican murals/ paramilitary murals...) est-elle pertinente?)

 

Comment les habitants de Derry et Belfast les perçoivent-ils?

(les habitants souhaitent-ils les conserver ou les voir disparaître? )

 

Comment les autorités les perçoivent-elles? (évocation du « re-imaging community programme mis en place dès 2006)

 

A quel point les murals font-ils partie du patrimoine Nord-Irlandais? Quel est leur rôle aujourd'hui?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

Books

GAVIN, Francesca, Street Renegades: New Underground Art, Laurence KingPublishers, 2007

 

ROLSTON, Bill, Drawing Support: Murals in the North of Ireland, Beyond the Pale Publications, 1992 (first edition)

ROLSTON, Bill, Drawing Support 3: Murals and transitions in the North of Ireland, Beyond the Pale Publications, 2003

 

ROLSTON, Bill, Politics and Painting: Murals and Conflict in Northern Ireland, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press,1991

 

 

SCAGLIA Beatriz, The Aesthetic Variable: Defining Street Art (Graffiti, Flash Mobs, Yarn Bombing, Street Installations, and More), Webster’s Digital Services, 2011

 

 

 

Websites:

 

Website about « The People’s Gallery » , available here:

http://www.bogsideartists.com/ [viewed 12/22/2011]

 

 

A website about murals, available here:

http://www.peacelinetours.co.uk/murals.html [viewed February 2012]

 

An article on Derry murals , available here: http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article/2282/murals-of-derry [viewed 01/03/2012]

 

An article on the political aspect of Northern Irish political murals, available here: http://www.stockphotography.co.uk/UK/Northern-Ireland/Irish-Political-Murals.aspx [viewed 01/03/2012]

 

 

 

Articles from BBC News’ official website, available here:

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4562793.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/6231216.stm [viewed 01/03/2012]

 

Various articles from Jean-Baptiste Allemand’s blog « Fast Belfast » : http://blogs.rue89.com/blog-belfast/2010/06/30/des-peintres-ex-ennemis-contre-belfast-et-ses-fresques-naives-156791

http://blogs.rue89.com/blog-belfast/2010/02/09/le-quartier-du-bloody-sunday-sauve-par-trois-peintres-au-chomage

 

[viewed January 2012]

 

A website about murals, available here:

http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/bibdbs/murals/rolston1.htm [viewed February 2012]

 

A website about Belfast murals, available here:

http://www.belfast-murals.co.uk/ [viewed February 2012]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






























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